brain


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  • Normal

    • architecture
    • components
      • gray matter: rich in cell bodies of nerves and glia
      • white matter: rich in axons forming tracts and fascicles
      • neuropil: rich in unmyelinated axons forming networks of synapses
      • meninges: dura (dense collagen, calcifications), arachnoid (mesothelial lining), pia (mesothelial lining, loose connective tissue)
      • CNS lacks connective tissue and lymphoid elements
    • cell types
      • neuron
      • glial = the non-neural cells
        • astrocyte
        • oligodendrocyte
        • ependymal cell
        • microglia
  • WHO neoplasms

  • Ddx by location

  • Inflammation ddx

    • meningitis
    • encephalitis
      • HSV
      • EBV
      • CMV
      • PML
      • rabies
      • HIV leukoencephalopathy
      • neurocysticercosis
      • west nile encephalitis
      • RMSF
      • other
        • parasites
          • CNS malaria
          • amebic encephalitis
          • trypanosomiasis
        • lymphocytic choriomeningitis
        • California encephalitis
        • subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
        • progressive rubella encephalitis
    • abscess
    • other
      • neurosarcoidosis
      • rheumatoid arthritis
      • Wegener disease
  • Vascular ddx

  • Degenerative ddx

  • Syndromes

    • NF1
    • NF2
    • vHL
    • Tuberous sclerosis
    • Li-Fraumeni
    • Cowden
    • Turcot
    • Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome
    • Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome