nose


Expand All | Collapse All
  • Normal

    • vestibule: squamous with adnexa (sebaceous, sweat glands, hair)
    • nasal cavity: respiratory mucosa, seromucinous glands
    • sinus: thin respiratory mucosa
    • septum: cartilage anterior, bone posterior
    • turbinates: respiratory mucosa, prominent vessels, bone
    • olfactory mucosa: respiratory epithelium and neural cells
  • Non-neoplastic

  • WHO neoplasms

    • malignant epithelial
    • benign epithelial
    • neuroendocrine
      • carcinoid
      • small cell carcinoma
    • neuroectodermal
    • soft tissue
    • bone and cartilage
      • malignant
        • chondrosarcoma
        • osteosarcoma
        • chordoma
      • benign
        • fibrous dysplasia
        • giant cell tumor
        • giant cell lesion
        • chondroma
        • osteoma
        • chondroblastoma
        • chondromyxoid fibroma
        • osteochondroma
        • osteoid osteoma
        • osteoblastoma
        • ameloblastoma
        • chondromesenchymal hamartoma
    • hematolymphoid
      • lymphoma
        • T-cell
        • DLBCL
      • plasmacytoma
      • myeloid sarcoma
      • histiocytic sarcoma
      • langerhans cell histiocytosis
      • juvenile xanthogranuloma
      • Rosai Dorfman disease
    • GCT
      • teratoma
        • mature
        • immature
        • with malignant transformation
      • yolk sac tumor
      • teratocarcinosarcoma
      • dermoid cyst
    • metastasis
  • TNM (useful for grossing)

    • maxillary sinus
      • T1: mucosa only
      • T2: involves bone, hard palate, middle nasal meatus
      • T3: involves bone of posterior maxillary sinus, subcutaneous tissue, floor or medial wall of orbit, pterygoid fossa, ethmoid sinus
      • T4a: involves anterior orbital contents, skin, pterygoid plates, infratemporal fossa, cribiform plate, sphenoid, frontal sinus
      • T4b: involves orbital apex, dura, brain, middle cranial fossa, cranial nerves other than V2, nasopharynx, clivus
    • nasal cavity, ethmoid sinus
      • T1: one subsite
      • T2: two subsites
      • T3: involves medial wall or floor of orbit, maxillary sinus, palate, cribiform plate
      • T4a: involves anterior orbital contents, skin, anterior cranial fossa, pterygoid plates, sphenoid, frontal sinus
      • T4b: involves orbital apex, dura, brain, middle cranial fossa, cranial nerves other than V2, nasopharynx, clivus
      • subsites: maxillary sinus, septum, floor, lateral wall, vestibule, ethmoid sinus
    • N
      • N1: single ipsilateral node, <= 3cm
      • N2a: single ipsilateral node, 3-6cm
      • N2b: multiple ipsilateral nodes, <= 6cm
      • N2c: contralateral or bilateral node, <= 6cm
      • N3: > 6cm
      • midline is considered ipsilateral
  • Staging

    • 0: Tis
    • I: T1
    • II: T2
    • III
      • T1-2, N1
      • T3, N0-1
    • IVA: T4a or N2
    • IVB: T4b or N3
    • IVC: M1