polycythemia



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  • High EPO

    • paraneoplastic
      • RCC, HCC, pheochromocytoma
      • hemangioblastoma, leiomyoma
    • renal lesions
    • chronic hypoxia (smoking, altitude, pulm dz, obesity)
  • Low/normal EPO

    • PV (JAK2)
    • EPO receptor mutation
    • doping, exogenous EPO
    • reduced plasma volume (stress, HTN, obese, smoker)