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  • Histology

    • has accompanying inflammation
    • architecture: minimal polarity loss
    • characteristic cytology: uniform nuclear enlargement, single prominent nucleolus
    • benign features: even vescicular chromatin (lacks hyperchromasia), round nuclear contour, lacks pleomorphism
    • has mitosis but lack atypical forms
  • Ddx

    • dysplasia (lacks prominent inflammation)
    • urothelial atypia of unknown significance (has inflammation, but too much atypia to just brush off as reactive)
    • UCIS (unequivocal malignant cytology)